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Jesus Christ


The Preexistence of Jesus Christ as God.

It is possible (as some have done) to hold to Jesus’ preexistence without believing in his deity. For example, the Jehovah’s Witnesses cult brazenly declares that Christ preexisted as Michael the archangel prior to Bethlehem. But the Bible dogmatically declares both his preexistence and his deity.

  1. The fact of his divine existence.
  • As taught by John the Baptist.

“John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me” (Jn. 1:15). (See also Jn. 1:27, 30.)

According to Luke 1:36, John’s birth occurred six months prior to Christ’s birth, but John declares that “he was before me,” a reference to Jesus’ preexistence.

  • As taught by the Apostle John.

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God” (Jn. 1:1).

“(For the life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear witness, and shew unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us)” (1 Jn. 1:2).

Here the Apostle John connects Jesus’ preexistence to his deity.

  • As taught by the Apostle Paul.

“Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross” (Phil. 2:6-8).

  • As taught by the Apostle Peter.

“Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you” (1 Pet. 1:20).

  • As taught by Christ himself.

“For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me” (Jn. 6:38).

“I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. When Jesus knew in himself that his disciples murmured at it, he said unto them, Doth this offend you? What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?” (Jn. 6:51, 61, 62).

“Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am” (Jn. 8:58).

“And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was” (Jn. 17:5).

Here Christ requests that the Father share his glory with the Son. But note the Father’s previous statement about his glory in Isaiah:

“I am the Lord: that is my name; and my glory will I not give to another…” (Isa. 42:8)

One is thus forced to conclude that either Christ was God indeed and had rightful claim to this glory, or he was an arrogant impostor demanding something the Father would never give him!

  1. The activities of the divine preexistent Christ. What was the Savior doing prior to his Bethlehem appearance? The Scriptures make it plain that he was busy indeed.
  • He was creating the universe.

“All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made” (Jn. 1:3).

“For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him” (Col. 1:16).

“Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the world…. And, thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands” (Heb. 1:2, 10).

This creation included everything, from electrons to galaxies, and from angels to Adam.

  • He was controlling this created universe.

“Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high” (Heb. 1:3).

“And he is before all things, and by him all things consist” (Col. 1:17).

Our Lord Jesus not only put all things together, but he continues to keep all things together.

  • He was communing with the Father.

“I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast loved me” (Jn. 17:23).

“Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world” (Jn. 17:24).


117 Scriptural Names for Christ


Adam (the last Adam) 1 Cor. 15:45


Advocate 1 John 2:1


Almighty Rev. 1:8


Alpha Rev. 1:8; 21:6


Amen Rev. 3:14


Angel of the Lord Gen. 16:9-14; Judg. 6:11-14


Anointed Ps. 2:2


Apostle Heb. 3:1


Author Heb. 12:2


Babe Luke 2:16


Beginning of creation Rev. 3:14


Begotten of the Father John 1:14


Beloved Eph. 1:6


Bishop 1 Pet. 2:25


Blessed 1 Tim. 6:15


Branch Zech. 3:8


Brazen serpent John 3:14


Bread of life John 6:35


Bridegroom Matt. 9:15


Bright morning star Rev. 22:16


Captain Josh. 5:4


Carpenter Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3


Chief Shepherd 1 Pet. 5:4


Child Isa. 9:6


Christ Matt. 1:16; 2:4


Commander Isa. 55:4


Consolation of Israel Luke 2:25.


Cornerstone Eph. 2:20


Dayspring from on high Luke 1:78


Day star 2 Pet. 1:19


Deliverer Rom. 11:26


Desire of nations Hag. 2:7


Door John 10:9


Door of the sheepfold John 10:7


Emmanuel Matt. 1:23


Everlasting Father Isa. 9:6


Express image of God Heb. 1:3


Faithful witness Rev. 1:5; 3:14; 19:11


First fruits 1 Cor. 15:23


Forerunner Heb. 6:20


Foundation Isa. 28:16


Fountain Zech. 13:1


Friend of sinners Matt. 11:19


Gift of God 2 Cor. 9:15


Glory of God Isa. 60:1


God John 1:1; Rom. 9:5; 1 Tim. 3:16


Good Samaritan Luke 10:33


Good Shepherd John 10:11, 14


Governor Matt. 2:6


Great Shepherd Heb. 13:20


Guide Ps. 48:14


Head of the Church Col. 1:18


Heir of all things Heb. 1:2


High Priest Heb. 3:1; 7:1


Holy child Acts 4:30


Holy One of God Mark 1:24


Holy One of Israel Isa. 41:14


Horn of salvation Ps. 18:2


Jehovah Isa. 26:4; 40:3


Jesus Matt. 1:21


Judge Mic. 5:1; Acts 10:42


King of Israel Matt. 27:42; John 1:49


Lamb of God John 1:29, 36


Lawgiver Isa. 33:22


Light of the world John 9:5


Lion of the tribe of Judah Rev. 5:5


Lord of lords Rev. 19:16


Man Acts 17:31; 1 Tim. 2:5


Master Matt. 8:19


Mediator 1 Tim. 2:5


Messiah Dan. 9:25; John 1:41


Mighty God Isa. 9:6; 63:1


Minister Heb. 8:2


Nazarene Mark 1:24


Only begotten Son John 1:18


Passover 1 Cor. 5:7


Physician Matt. 9:12


Potentate 1 Tim. 6:15


Power of God 1 Cor. 1:24


Prince Acts 3:15; 5:31


Prophet Acts 3:22


Propitiation 1 John 2:2; 4:10


Purifier Mal. 3:3


Priest Heb. 4:14


Rabbi John 3:2; 20:16


Ransom 1 Tim. 2:6


Reaper Rev. 14:15


Redeemer Isa. 59:20; 60:16


Refiner Mal. 3:3


Refuge Isa. 25:4


Resurrection John 11:25


Righteousness Jer. 23:6; 33:16


Rock Deut. 32:15


Rod Isa. 11:1


Root of David Rev. 22:16


Rose of Sharon Song of Sol. 2:1


Sacrifice Eph. 5:2


Savior Luke 1:47; 2:11


Second Adam 1 Cor. 15:47


Seed of Abraham Gal. 3:16, 19


Seed of David 2 Tim. 2:8


Seed of the woman Gen. 3:15


Servant Isa. 42:1; 49:5-7


Shepherd Ps. 23:1


Shiloh Gen. 49:10


Son of David Matt. 15:22; 20:30; 21:9


Son of God Luke 1:35; Matt. 16:16


Son of Man (his favorite name for himself) Matt. 18:11


Son of Mary Mark 6:3


Son of the Most High Luke 1:32


Stone Matt. 21:42; Mark 12:10; Acts 4:11; Rom. 9:32-33; Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6-7


Sun of Righteousness Mal. 4:2


Teacher (Master) Matt. 26:18; John 3:2


True vine John 15:1


Way John 14:6


Wonderful Isa. 9:6


Word John 1:1;


The Old Testament Ministry of Jesus Christ.

The Old Testament records a number of theophanies. A theophany is a pre-Bethlehem appearance of Christ. Most Bible theologians hold that the recurring angel of the Lord episode in the Old Testament is to be identified with Christ himself. This theological position is strongly suggested by two key passages.

The first is found in Genesis 48:16 where the dying patriarch, Jacob, is blessing his two grandchildren. The old founder of Israel prays:

“The angel who redeemed me from all evil, bless these lads…” (Gen. 48:16).

As no regular angel can redeem men, it is assumed the angel here is actually Christ.

The second passage is found in Judges 13 where a barren couple has just learned from the angel of the Lord about the future birth of Samson. In gratitude, Manoah (the father), requests the name of the angel that he might call the babe after him. Note the answer, however:

“And the angel of the Lord said unto him, why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is secret” (Jdg. 13:18).

This word, “secret,” is from the same Hebrew root word found in Isaiah 9:6, where it is translated “wonderful.”

“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace” (Isa. 9:6).

Inasmuch as we know the “wonderful” in this verse refers to Christ, it is highly probable that Judges 13:18 does as well.

Let us now examine some of these Old Testament theophanies.

  1. He appeared to Hagar, Abraham’s Egyptian wife (Gen. 16:7-14). The first biblical reference to the angel of the Lord occurs here as he tenderly ministers to a pagan and pregnant Egyptian girl.
  1. He appeared to Abraham (Gen. 18:1; 22:11-13). These two appearances came at critical times in Abraham’s life. One (Gen. 18) concerned itself with the destruction of Sodom, and the other (Gen. 22) with the last-minute salvation of Isaac.
  1. He appeared to Jacob (Gen. 28:13; 32:24-32; 48:16). It will be remembered that Christ not only appeared to Jacob, but actually wrestled with him. (See Gen. 32.) This was doubtless that same divine One he had seen standing atop a ladder some twenty years before. (See Gen. 28.)
  1. He appeared to Moses (Ex. 3:2; 23:20; 33:18-23). These three occasions were all connected with Mt. Sinai.

The first was near the mountain.

“And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. And he said, Draw not near here: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground” (Ex. 3:4, 5).

The second occasion was on the mountain.

“Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared” (Ex. 23:20).

The final occasion was in the mountain.

“And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a clift of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by” (Ex. 33:22).

  1. He appeared to Joshua (Josh. 5:13-15). He appears to Joshua on the eve of the battle against Jericho and introduces himself as the captain of the Lord’s host.
  1. He appeared to Gideon (Jdg. 6:11-24). The angel of the Lord finds a very discouraged Gideon threshing wheat beside a wine press to hide it from the oppressing Midianites.
  1. He appeared to Samson’s parents (Jdg. 13).
  1. He appeared to Isaiah (Isa. 6:1-13). Isaiah is allowed to see more of the glory of the pre-incarnate Christ than any other Old Testament prophet.
  1. He appeared to three young Hebrews in the fiery furnace (Dan. 3:25). How thrilling are the astonished words of pagan king Nebuchadnezzar which accompanied this appearance:

“Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonished, and rose up in haste, and spake, and said unto his counselors, Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire? They answered and said unto the king, True, O king. He answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God” (Dan. 3:24, 23).

  1. He appeared to Daniel (Dan. 6:22; 7:9-14). The first of these appearances was in a lion’s den.

“Then said Daniel unto the king, O king, live forever. My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut the lion’s mouth, that they have not hurt me…” (Dan. 6:21, 22).

The second appearance was in a vision.

“I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even fill the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time. I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed” (Dan. 7:9-14).

  1. He appeared to Zechariah (Zech. 1:8-13; 2:8-11; 3:10; 6:12-15). In this book, Zechariah describes Christ as protecting Jerusalem (1:8-13), measuring Jerusalem (2:8-11), cleansing Jerusalem (3:10), and building Jerusalem (6:12-15).


8 Divine Announcements Concerning Christ’s Birth


To Zacharias Luke 1:17, 76


To Mary Luke 1:31, 35


To Elisabeth Luke 1:41-43


To Joseph Matt. 1:20-21


To the shepherds Luke 2:10-12


To the wise men Matt. 2:1-2


To Simeon Luke 2:25-32


To Anna Luke 2:38



The Virgin Birth / Incarnation of Jesus Christ

A ) False views concerning the incarnation.

  • The Ebionites. They denied the reality of Jesus’ divine nature. The Ebionite error is refuted by John the Apostle in the first verse of his Gospel account.

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God” (Jn. 1:1).

  • The Gnostics. They denied the reality of Jesus’ human nature. The Gnostic error is refuted by John the apostle in the first verse of his first epistle.

“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life” (1 Jn. 1:1).

  • The Arians. They affirmed Jesus’ preexistence, but denied his deity.

This is the position of the present-day Jehovah’s Witnesses.

  • The Nestorians. They believed two persons actually indwelt the body of Christ, the human person and the divine.
  • The Eutychians. They went to the opposite extreme and said both natures (the human and the divine) mingled to make up a third and totally different nature from the original two natures.

B ) The true view of the incarnation.

“In the one person, Jesus Christ, there are two natures, a human nature and a divine nature, each in its completeness and integrity, and these two natures are organically and indissolubly united, yet so that no third nature is formed thereby.” (A. H. Strong, Systematic Theology, p. 673)

“He always says, I, me, mine. He is always addressed as thou, thee, thine. He is always spoken of as He, His, Him. It was the same person to whom it was said, ‘Thou Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the works of thine hands.’” (Charles Hodge, as quoted by Charles Baker, A Dispensational Theology, p. 300)

Thus, in the Old Testament we have man made in the image of God and in the New Testament we see God made in the image of man.

C ) The miracles involved in the incarnation.

  1. That God the Son could take upon himself the full nature of man and yet retain the full nature of God.

The Bible declares that he was as much God as if he had never been man, and as much man as if he had never been God. This is known as the hypostatic union. There is no earthly analogy that can be used even to remotely illustrate this. The following examples have been unsuccessfully offered:

  • the relationship between man’s body and soul
  • that between the Father and the Son
  • that between husband and wife
  • that between the believer and the Holy Spirit
  • that between a Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
  • that between oxygen and hydrogen which produces water
  1. That a human body could be conceived within a mother’s womb without an earthly father.

The miracle of the virgin birth was not the actual birth, but the conception of Christ’s earthly body.

Furthermore, this conception was not only supernatural, but unique also, for God had already performed supernatural births for Sarah, Hannah, Elisabeth, and others.

D ) The perpetuity of the incarnation.

When the Son of God joined himself to a body at Bethlehem it was an eternal arrangement. He will continue to manifest himself in this body (in its resurrected state, of course) throughout the ages.

E ) The prophecies concerning the incarnation.

  • Old Testament.
  1. By Isaiah the prophet.

“Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel” (Isa. 7:14).

“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this” (Isa. 9:6, 7).

  1. By Micah the prophet.

“But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting” (Micah 5:2).

  • New Testament.

Heavenly announcements were given to at least eight individuals or groups concerning the incarnation in the New Testament.

  1. To Zacharias.

“And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord. And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways” (Lk. 1:17, 76).

  1. To Mary.

“And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God” (Lk. 1:31, 35).

  1. To Elisabeth.

“And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb” (Lk. 1:42).

  1. To Joseph.

“But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus: for he shall save his people from their sins” (Mt. 1:20, 21).

  1. To the shepherds.

“And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger” (Lk. 2:10-12).

  1. To the wise men.

“Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him” (Mt. 2:1, 2).

  1. To Simeon.

“And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost was upon him. And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law. Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said, Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word: for mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel” (Lk. 2:25-32).

  1. To Anna.

“And she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem” (Lk. 2:38).

F ) The reasons for the incarnation.

Why the virgin birth incarnation? God never does anything without a good reason, and in this case, there were some fourteen excellent reasons for the incarnation.

  1. To reveal the invisible God.

“No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father?” (Jn. 1:18; 14:9).

  1. To fulfill prophecy.

“And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:15).

  1. To guarantee the Davidic covenant. The Davidic covenant assured David that someday an heir from his own seed would rule over Israel on his throne forever.

“Now therefore so shalt thou say unto my servant David, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, I took thee from the sheepcote, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Israel: and I was with thee whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off all thine enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like unto the name of the great men that are in the earth. Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime, and as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel, and have caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also the Lord telleth thee that he will make thee a house. And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever. I will be his father and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: but my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever. According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Nathan speak unto David” (2 Sam. 7:8-17).

“And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end” (Lk. 1:31-33).

  1. To make a sacrifice for our sins.

“But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man” (Heb. 2:9).

“For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me: By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God” (Heb. 10:4, 5, 10, 12).

“And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins; and in him is no sin” (1 Jn. 3:5).

“For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many” (Mk. 10:45).

  1. To reconcile man to God.

“To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trepasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation” (2 Cor. 5:19).

“Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people” (Heb. 2:17).

“For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time” (1 Tim. 2:5, 6).

  1. To provide an example for believers.

“For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps” (1 Pet. 2:21).

“He that saith he abideth in him ought himself also so to walk, even as he walked” (1 Jn. 2:6).

  1. To provide the believer with a high priest.

“Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people” (Heb. 2:17).

“Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus” (Heb. 3:1).

  1. To destroy the devil and his works.

“Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is the devil” (Heb. 2:14).

“He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil” (1 Jn. 3:8).

  1. To escape the historical curse.
  • Upon Adam’s seed.

“Wherefore as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned” (Rom. 5:12).

  • Upon King Jehoiakim and his son, Jehoiachin. Both these wicked rulers, Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:30) and Jehoiachin (Jer. 22:30) were judged by God and warned that their physical seed would never prosper upon the throne of David.
  1. To heal the brokenhearted.

“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, cause he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised” (Lk. 4:18).

  1. To set at liberty the bruised (Lk. 4:18).
  2. To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord (Lk. 4:18).
  3. To give life—abundant life.

“He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him” (Jn. 3:36).

“The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly” (Jn. 10:10).

  1. To glorify the Father (Jn. 13:31; 14:13; 17:4).

“Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him” (Jn. 13:31).

“And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son” (Jn. 14:13).

“I have glorified thee on the earth: I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do” (Jn. 17:4).


14 Reasons for the Virgin Birth


To reveal the invisible God John 1:18; 14:9


To fulfill prophecy Gen. 3:15


To guarantee the Davidic covenant 2 Sam. 7:8-17; Luke 1:31-33


To make a sacrifice for our sins Heb. 2:9; 10:4-5, 10, 12; 1 John 3:5; Mark 10:45


To reconcile man to God 2 Cor. 5:19; Heb. 2:17; 1 Tim. 2:5-6


To provide an example for believers 1 Pet. 2:21; 1 John 2:6


To provide the believer with a high priest Heb. 2:17; 3:1


To destroy the devil and his works Heb. 2:14; 1 John 3:8


To escape the historical curse upon Adam’s seed Rom. 5:12


To heal the brokenhearted Luke 4:18


To set at liberty the bruised Luke 4:18


To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord Luke 4:18


To give abundant life John 3:36; 10:10


To glorify the Father John 13:31; 14:13; 17:4



25 Proofs of the Humanity of Christ


He had a human parentage. Luke 1:31; Gal. 4:4


He had a human body. Matt. 26:12


He looked like a man. John 4:9


He possessed flesh and blood. Heb. 2:14


He grew. Luke 2:40


He asked questions. Luke 2:46


He increased in wisdom. Luke 2:52


He prayed. Mark 1:35; Luke 11:1


He was tempted. Matt. 4:1; Heb. 2:18; 4:15


He learned obedience. Heb. 5:8


He hungered. Matt. 4:2; 21:18


He thirsted. John 4:7; 19:28


He was weary. John 4:6


He slept. Matt. 8:24


He loved. Mark 10:21


He had compassion. Matt. 9:36


He was angered and grieved. Mark 3:5


He wept. John 11:35; Luke 19:41


He experienced joy. Heb. 12:2; Luke 10:21


He was troubled. Mark 14:33-34; John 11:33; 12:27; 13:21


He sweat drops as of blood. Luke 22:44


He suffered. 1 Pet. 4:1


He bled. John 19:34


He died. Matt. 27:50; 1 Cor. 15:3


He was buried. Matt. 27:59-60


The Humanity of Jesus Christ

A ) He had a human parentage (Lk. 1:31; Gal. 4:4).

B ) He had a human body, soul, and spirit.

  1. Body.

“For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body, she did it for my burial” (Mt. 26:12).

  1. Soul.

“Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour” (Jn. 12:27).

“Then said he unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with me” (Mt. 26:38).

  1. Spirit.

“And immediately when Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, he said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts?” (Mk. 2:8).

“And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost” (Lk. 23:46).

C ) He looked like a man.

  1. To a Samaritan woman.

“Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria? for the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans” (Jn. 4:9).

  1. To the Jews.

“Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?” (Jn. 8:57).

  1. To Mary.

“Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away” (Jn. 20:15).

  1. He possessed flesh and blood (Heb. 2:14).
  2. He grew (Lk. 2:40).
  3. He asked questions (Lk. 2:46).
  4. He increased in wisdom (Lk. 2:52).
  5. He was limited in knowledge. Here it should be pointed out that this limitation was self-imposed. According to Philippians 2:5-8 (a passage we will examine in great detail in a later part of the study), Christ voluntarily abstained from using (yet always retained) certain divine attributes while here on earth, that he might totally depend upon the power and wisdom of the Holy Spirit. This fact helps explain the following passages:

“And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes?” (Mk. 5:30).

“And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see” (Jn. 11:34).

“And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for the time of figs was not yet” (Mk. 11:13).

“But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father” (Mk. 13:32).

  1. He prayed (Mk. 1:35; Lk. 11:1).
  2. He was tempted (Mt. 4:1; Heb. 2:18; 4:15).
  3. He learned obedience (Heb. 5:8).
  4. He hungered.

“And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward ahungered” (Mt. 4:2).

“Now in the morning as he returned into the city, he hungered” (Mt. 21:18).

  1. He thirsted.

“There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water: Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink” (Jn. 4:7).

“After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst” (Jn. 19:28).

  1. He was weary (Jn. 4:6).
  2. He slept.

“And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was covered with the waves: but he was asleep” (Mt. 8:24).

  1. He loved.

“Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me” (Mk. 10:21).

  1. He had compassion.

“But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted, and were scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd” (Mt. 9:36).

  1. He was angered and grieved.

“And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other” (Mk. 3:5).

  1. He wept.

“Jesus wept” (Jn. 11:35).

“And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it” (Lk. 19:41).

  1. He experienced joy.

“Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God” (Heb. 12:2).

“In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight” (Lk. 10:21).

  1. He was troubled.

“When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled” (Jn. 11:33).

“Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour” (Jn. 12:27).

“When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me” (Jn. 13:21).

“And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy; and saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here and watch” (Mk. 14:33, 34).

  1. He sweat drops as of blood (Lk. 22:44).
  2. He suffered (1 Pet. 4:1).
  3. He bled (Jn. 19:34).
  4. He died (Mt. 27:50; 1 Cor. 15:3).
  5. He was buried (Mt. 27:59, 60).



37 Proofs of the Deity of Christ


He was omnipotent over disease. Matt. 8:1-4; Luke 4:39


He was omnipotent over demons. Matt. 8:16-17, 28-32; Luke 4:35


He was omnipotent over men. Matt. 9:9; John 17:2


He was omnipotent over nature. Matt. 8:26


He was omnipotent over sin. Matt. 9:1-8


He was omnipotent over traditions. Matt. 9:10-17


He was omnipotent over death. Luke 7:14-15; 8:54-56; John 11:4


He was omniscient, knowing the whereabouts of Nathanael. John 1:48


He was omniscient, knowing the plot of Judas. John 6:70


He was omniscient, knowing the hearts of the Pharisees. Matt. 12:25; Luke 5:22; 6:8; 7:39-40


He knew the thoughts of the scribes. Matt. 9:3-4


He knew the sincerity of one scribe. Mark 12:34


He knew the history of the Samaritan woman. John 4:24


He knew the problems of his disciples. Luke 9:46-47


He was omnipresent. Matt. 18:20; 28:20; John 3:13; 14:20


He was worshiped as God by the angels. Heb. 1:6


He was worshiped as God by the shepherds. Luke 2:15


He was worshiped as God by the wise men. Matt. 2:2, 11


He was worshiped as God by a leper. Matt. 8:2


He was worshiped as God by a ruler. Matt. 9:18


He was worshiped as God by a Canaanite woman. Matt. 15:25


He was worshiped as God by a mother. Matt. 20:20


He was worshiped as God by a maniac. Mark 5:6


He was worshiped as God by a man born blind. John 9:38


He was worshiped as God by Thomas. John 20:28


He was worshiped as God by some Greeks. John 12:20-21


He was worshiped as God by his apostles. Matt. 14:33; 28:9


He forgave sins. Mark 2:5, 10-11


He judges. John 5:22


He saves. Matt. 18:11; John 10:28


Stephen called him God. Acts 7:59


The eunuch called him God. Acts 8:37


Paul called him God. Gal. 2:20; Col. 1:15-17; 2:9; 1 Tim. 3:16; Titus 2:13


Peter called him God. 1 Pet. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:17


Jude called him God. Jude 25


James called him God. James 2:1


John called him God. 1 John 5:20; Rev. 1:18; 19:16


The Deity of Jesus Christ

A ) Shown by the Old Testament.

  1. The witness of David.

“Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the scepter of thy kingdom is a right scepter. Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows” (Ps. 45:6, 7).

“The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool” (Ps. 110:1).

  1. The witness of Isaiah.

“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace” (Isa. 9:6).

  1. The witness of Daniel.

“I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed” (Dan. 7:13, 14).

B ) Shown by the Gospels.

  • He is omnipotent (Mt. 28:18).
  1. over disease (Mt. 8:1-4; Lk. 4:39)
  2. demons (Mt. 8:16, 17, 28-32; Lk. 4:35)
  3. over men (Mt. 9:9; Jn. 17:2)
  4. over nature (Mt. 8:26)
  5. over sin (Mt. 9:1-8)
  6. over traditions (Mt. 9:10-17)
  7. over death (Lk. 7:14, 15; 8:54, 56; Jn. 1:14)
  • He is omniscient (Jn. 2:24; 16:30).
  1. H knew the whereabouts of Nathanael (Jn. 1:48).
  2. He knew the plot of Judas (Jn. 6:70; 13:11).
  3. He knew the hearts of the Pharisees (Mt. 12:25; Lk. 5:22; 6:8; 7:39, 40).
  4. He knew the thoughts of the scribes (Mt. 9:3, 4).
  5. He knew the sincerity of one scribe (Mk. 12:34).
  6. He knew the history of the Samaritan woman (Jn. 4:29).
  7. He knew the problems of his disciples (Lk. 9:46, 47). If rightly understood, there is no contradiction here between his omniscience and his being limited in knowledge (as we have already discussed). He retained every whit of his deity while on earth (thus his omniscience) but voluntarily abstained from using it, that he might be totally dependent upon the Holy Spirit (thus his limited knowledge in certain areas).
  • He is omnipresent (Mt. 18:20; 28:20; Jn. 3:13; 14:20).
  • He is worshiped as God (cf. Mt. 4:9, 10).
  1. by the angels (Heb. 1:6).
  2. by the shepherds (Lk. 2:15)
  3. by the wise men (Mt. 2:2, 11)
  4. by a leper (Mt. 8:2)
  5. by a ruler (Mt. 9:18)
  6. by a Syro-Phoenician woman (Mt. 15:25)
  7. by a mother (Mt. 20:20)
  8. by a maniac (Mk. 5:6)
  9. by a man born blind (Jn. 9:38)
  10. by Thomas (Jn. 20:28)
  11. by some Greeks (Jn. 12:20, 21)
  12. by his apostles (Mt. 14:33; 28:9)
  • He forgives sins (Mk. 2:5, 10, 11).
  • He judges.

“For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son” (Jn. 5:22).

  • He saves (Mt. 18:11; Jn. 10:28).

C ) Shown by the Acts.

  1. The testimony of Stephen.

“And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit” (Acts 7:59).

  1. The testimony of a eunuch.

“And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God” (Acts 8:37).

D ) Shown by the epistles.

  1. In the writings of Paul. Note the language of just a few of these great Pauline verses on the deity of Christ.

“I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me” (Gal. 2:20).

“Who is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every creature: For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: And he is before all things, and by him all things consist” (Col. 1:15-17).

“For in him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily” (Col. 2:9).

“And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory” (1 Tim. 3:16).

“Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ” (Titus 2:13).

  1. In the writings of Peter. Consider also a sampling of Peter’s testimony concerning Christ’s deity.

“Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him” (1 Pet. 3:22).

“For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” (2 Pet. 1:17).

  1. In the writings of Jude.

“To the only wise God our Savior, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen” (Jude 1:25).

  1. In the writings of James.

“My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with respect of persons” (Jas. 2:1).

  1. In the writings of John.

“And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life” (1 Jn. 5:20).

“I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death” (Rev. 1:18).

“And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS” (Rev. 19:16).

Dr. John Walvoord quotes the following from Charles Hodge:

“All divine names and rifles are applied to Him. He is called God, the mighty God, the great God, God over all; Jehovah; Lord; the Lord of lords and King of kings. All divine attributes are ascribed to Him. He is declared to be omnipresent, omniscient, almighty, and immutable, the same yesterday, today, and forever. He is set forth as the creator and upholder and ruler of the universe. All things were created by Him and for Him; and by Him all things consist. He is the object of worship to all intelligent creatures, even the highest; all the angels (i.e., all creatures between man and God) are commanded to prostrate themselves before Him. He is the object of all the religious sentiments; of reverence, love, faith, and devotion. To Him men and angels are responsible for their character and conduct. He required that man should honour Him as they honoured the Father; that they should exercise the same faith in Him that they do in God. He declares that He and the Father are one, that those who had seen Him had seen the Father also. He calls all men unto him; promises to forgive their sins; to send them the Holy Spirit; to give them rest and peace; to raise them up at the last day; and to give them eternal life. God is not more, and cannot promise more, or do more than Christ is said to be, to promise, and to do. He has, therefore, been the Christian’s God from the beginning, in all ages and in all places.” (Jesus Christ, Our Lord, p. 31)



11 Witnesses for the Sinlessness of Christ


Paul 2 Cor. 5:21


Peter 1 Pet. 2:22


The author of Hebrews Heb. 4:15


John the apostle 1 John 3:5


Pilate John 19:4


Pilate’s wife Matt. 27:19


Judas Iscariot Matt. 27:4


The dying thief Luke 23:41


The Roman centurion Luke 23:47


Christ himself John 14:30


The Impeccability of Jesus Christ.

This subject deals with sinlessness. Here two facts should be stated:

A ) Christ did not sin.

We are informed that:

  1. He knew no sin.

“For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him” (2 Cor. 5:21).

  1. He did no sin.

“Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth” (1 Pet. 2:22).

“For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin” (Heb. 4:15).

  1. He had no sin.

“And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins; and in him is no sin” (1 Jn. 3:5).

“Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me” (Jn. 14:30).

B ) These facts concerning the sinlessness of Christ while upon the earth are attested by many individuals, some of which were his enemies:

  1. Pilate.

“Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him” (Jn. 19:4).

  1. Pilate’s wife.

“When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him” (Mt. 27:19).

  1. Judas.

“Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that” (Mt. 27:4).

  1. The dying thief.

“And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss” (Lk. 23:41).

  1. The Roman centurion.

“Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man” (Lk. 23:47).

C ) Christ could not sin. There is no question concerning the fact that Jesus did not sin while on this earth, but could he have done so? Author W. E. Best writes:

“The point of view that Christ could sin is designated by the idea of peccability, and the fact that He could not sin is expressed by the term impeccability. To suggest the capability or possibility of sinning would disqualify Christ as Saviour, for a peccable Christ would mean a peccable God. Holiness is far more than the absence of sin; it is positive virtue. The advocates of peccability say, ‘Christ could have sinned, but He did not.’ To say that He could have sinned is to deny positive holiness. To deny positive holiness, therefore, is to deny the holy character of God. Holiness is positive virtue which has neither room for nor interest in sin. The Lord Jesus could not sin because the days of His flesh meant only addition of experience, not variation of character. Holy humanity was united to Deity in one indivisible person, the impeccable Christ. Jesus Christ cannot have more holiness because He is perfectly holy; He cannot have less holiness because He is unchangingly holy.” (Studies in the Person and Work of Jesus Christ, p. 3)

The question is asked, however: If Christ could not have sinned, then what was the purpose of the temptations in the wilderness? Here it should be observed that these trials were not to see if Christ would sin, but to prove he would not.



9 Examples of Christ’s Humility


He left heaven’s glory. John 17:5; 2 Cor. 8:9


He made himself of no reputation. Phil. 2:7


He abstained from his omnipresence for a period. John 11:14-15


He abstained from his omniscience for a period. Mark 13:32; Luke 8:45-46


He abstained from his omnipotence for a period. John 5:19-20


He was made in the likeness of men. John 1:14; Rom. 1:3; Gal. 4:4; Heb. 2:14, 17


He humbled himself—that is, he submitted to authority. 1 Pet. 2:21-24


He became obedient unto death. Matt. 26:39; John 10:18; Heb. 5:8; 12:2


He died on a cross. Ps. 22; Isa. 53; Gal. 3:13




17 Post-Resurrection Appearances of Christ


First appearance: to Mary Magdalene as she remained at the site of the tomb John 20:11-17


Second appearance: to the other women who were also returning to the tomb Matt. 28:9-10


Third appearance: to Peter Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5


Fourth appearance: to the disciples as they walked on the road to Emmaus Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-31


Fifth appearance: to the ten disciples Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-51; John 20:19-23


Sixth appearance: to the 11 disciples a week after his resurrection John 20:26-29


Seventh appearance: to seven disciples by the Sea of Galilee John 21:1-23


Eighth appearance: to 500 1 Cor. 15:6


Ninth appearance: to James, the Lord’s brother 1 Cor. 15:7


Tenth appearance: to 11 disciples on the mountain in Galilee Matt. 28:16-20


Eleventh appearance: at the time of the Ascension Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:3-9


Twelfth appearance: to Stephen just prior to his martyrdom Acts 7:55-56


Thirteenth appearance: to Paul on the road to Damascus Acts 9:3-6; 22:6-11; 26:13-18


Fourteenth appearance: to Paul in Arabia Gal. 1:12-17


Fifteenth appearance: to Paul in the temple Acts 9:26-27; 22:17-21


Sixteenth appearance: to Paul while he was in prison in Caesarea Acts 23:11


Seventeenth appearance: to the apostle John Rev. 1:12-20



14 Results of Christ’s Resurrection


It guarantees our justification. Rom. 4:24


It guarantees present-day power and strength. Eph. 1:18-2:10


It guarantees fruitful labor. 1 Cor. 15:58


It guarantees our own resurrection. 2 Cor. 4:14


It will exchange bodily corruption for incorruption. 1 Cor. 15:42


It will exchange dishonor for glory. 1 Cor. 15:43


It will exchange our physical weaknesses for power. 1 Cor. 15:43


It will exchange a material body for a spiritual body. 1 Cor. 15:44


It emphasizes the deity of Christ. Acts 10:40; Rom. 1:4


It is the springboard of Christ’s exaltation. Acts 5:30-31; Phil. 2:9-11


It marks the beginning of his lordship over the Church. Eph. 1:19-23


It warns the sinner of the coming Judgment Day. Acts 17:31


It forever seals the doom of Satan. Heb. 2:14; Rev. 20:10


It transfers the worship day from Saturday to Sunday. Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2



39 Descriptions of Christ in the 39 Old Testament Books


Seed of the woman; Shiloh Gen. 3:15; 49:10


Passover Lamb Exodus 12:3


Anointed high priest Lev. 8:7-9


Star of Jacob; brazen serpent Num. 21:8; 24:17


Prophet like Moses; the great rock Deut. 18:15; 32:4


Captain of the Lord’s hosts Josh. 5:14


Messenger of the Lord Judg. 2:1


Kinsman-redeemer Ruth 2:1


Great judge 1 Sam. 2:10


Seed of David 2 Sam. 7:13


Lord God of Israel 1 Kings 8:15, 26


God of the cherubim 2 Kings 19:15


God of our salvation 1 Chronicles 16:35


God of our fathers 2 Chronicles 20:6


Lord of heaven and earth Ezra 1:2


Covenant-keeping God Neh. 1:5


The God of providence Esther


Risen and returning redeemer Job 19:25


The anointed Son; the Holy One; the good shepherd; the king of glory Ps. 2:7, 12; 16:10; 23:1; 24:7-10


The wisdom of God Prov. 8


The one above the sun Ecclesiastes


Chief among ten thousand; altogether lovely Song of Solomon 5:10, 16


Virgin-born Immanuel; wonderful, counselor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the prince of peace; the man of sorrows Isa. 7:14; 9:6; 52:13; 53:3


The Lord our righteousness Jer. 23:6; 33:16


The faithful and compassionate God Lam. 3:22-23, 31-33


The Lord is there Ezekiel


Stone, Son of God, Son of Man Dan. 2:34; 3:25; 7:13


King of the resurrection Hos. 13:9, 14


God of the battle and giver of the Spirit Joel 2:11, 28-32; 3:2, 9-17


God of hosts and the plumbline Amos 4:13; 7:9


Destroyer of the proud Obadiah 8, 15


The risen prophet; God of second chance; the longsuffering one Jon. 2:10; 3:1; 4:9-11


God of Jacob; the Bethlehem-born; the pardoning God Mic. 4:1-5; 5:2; 7:18-19


The avenging God; the bringer of good tidings Nah. 1:2, 15


The everlasting, pure, glorious, and anointed one Hab. 1:12-13; 2:14; 3:13


The king of Israel Zeph. 3:15


Desire of all nations Hag. 2:7


Branch; builder of temple; king of triumphal entry; pierced one; king of the earth Zech. 3:8; 6:12-13; 9:9; 12:10; 14:9


The sun of righteousness Mal. 4:2


The Old Testament Witnesses of Jesus Christ.

The Bible is a Christ-centered book. Jesus himself said the Old Testament spoke of him (Jn. 5:39). Following is a brief panorama of his story in history, as demonstrated by some Old Testament men and women. Events in their lives remind us of some aspect in the Savior’s New Testament ministry.

A ) Adam: his headship over a new creation (Gen. 1:28; Rom. 5:17-19; 1 Cor. 15:22, 45, 47; Heb. 2:7-9).
B ) Moses: his prophetical ministry (Deut. 18:15-18; Heb. 3:5, 6).
C ) Melchizedek: his priestly ministry (Gen. 14:18-20; Ps. 110:4; Heb. 5-8).
D ) David: his kingly ministry (2 Sam. 7:1-17; Mk. 11:10; Rev. 5:5; 22:16).
E ) Jeremiah: his sorrows (Jer. 3:20; 5:1-5; 8:20-22; 9:1; 10:19; 11:19).
F ) Joseph: his sufferings (the most perfect type of Christ in the Old Testament).

  1. Hated without a cause (Gen. 37:4, 8; Jn. 15:25).
  2. Ridiculed (Gen. 37:19; Lk. 22:63).
  3. Plotted against (Gen. 37:20; Jn. 11:53).
  4. Stripped of his robe (Gen. 37:23; Jn. 19:23, 24).
  5. Sold for silver (Gen. 37:28; Mt. 26:14-16).
  6. Lied about (Gen. 39:14; Mt. 26:61).
  7. Placed in captivity with two guilty men (Gen. 40:1-3; Lk. 23:32, 33).
  8. Unrecognized by his own (Gen. 42:8; Jn. 1:11).

G ) Isaac: his death (Gen. 22:2, 8, 10; Mt. 26:36, 42, 43).

H ) Jonah: his resurrection (Jonah 1:17; Mt. 12:40; 16:4; Lk. 11:29).

I ) Joshua: his victorious life (Josh. 1:3, 5, 6, 8, 9; Jn. 10:17, 18; 19:30).

J ) Noah: his saving life (Gen. 6:13, 14, 17, 18; 1 Pet. 3:18-22).
K ) Abraham: his father (Gen. 22:7, 8; Mt. 26:36, 42, 43).
L ) Daniel: his acceptance by the Father (Dan. 9:23; 10:11, 19; Mt. 3:17; 17:5).
M ) Elijah: his forerunner (Isa. 40:3, 4; Mt. 17:11, 12).
N ) Elisha: his miracles: Elisha performs fourteen miracles, nearly double those of any other Old Testament man, except Moses (2 Ki. 2:9; Jn. 3:2).
O ) Ezekiel: his parables. There are sixty-nine parables in the Old Testament; twenty-three are to be found in Ezekiel’s book alone (Ezek. 17:2; 20:49; Mt. 13:3).
P ) Ruth: his church (Ruth 2-4; 2 Cor. 11:2).
Q ) Boaz: his love for the church (Ruth 2-4; Eph. 5:25-27).
R ) Ezra: his zeal for the Scriptures (Neh. 8; Mt. 21:42; 22:29; Mk. 12:10, 24; Lk. 4:21; 24:27; Jn. 10:35).
S ) Nehemiah: his zeal for the Holy City (Neh. 1-2; Mt. 23:37-39; Lk. 19:41).
T ) Absalom: his opposition:

  1. From Judas. Absalom was a betrayer and member of David’s inner circle, as was Judas of Jesus’ inner circle (2 Sam. 15; Mt. 26:14).
  2. From the coming antichrist. Absalom plotted against the Davidic throne, as will the antichrist (2 Sam. 15; Rev. 13).

U ) Solomon: his wisdom (1 Ki. 3:11-13; Lk. 4:22; Jn. 7:46).

V ) Lot: his backslidden followers (Gen. 19; 2 Pet. 2:7).


The SON of God in the WORD of God

Genesis 3:15; 49:10 Seed of the woman and Shiloh
Exodus 12:3 Passover Lamb
Leviticus 8:7-9 Anointed high Priest
Numbers 21:8; 24:17 Star of Jacob and brazen serpent
Deuteronomy 18:15; 32:4 Prophet like Moses and great Rock
Joshua 5:14 Captain of the Lord’s host
Judges 2:1 Messenger of Jehovah
Ruth 2:1 Kinsman-Redeemer
1 Samuel 2:10 Great Judge
2 Samuel 7:13 Seed of David
1 Kings 8:15, 26 Lord God of Israel
2 Kings 19:15 God of the cherubim
1 Chronicles 16:35 God of our salvation
2 Chronicles 20:6 God of our fathers
Ezra 1:2 Lord of heaven and earth
Nehemiah 1:5 Covenant-keeping God
Esther The God of providence
Job 19:25 Risen and returning Redeemer
Psalms 2:1, 7, 12; 16:10; 23:1; 24:7-10 The anointed Son, the Holy One, The Good Shepherd, and the King of Glory
Proverbs 8 The wisdom of God
Ecclesiastes The one above the sun
Song of Solomon 5:10, 16 Chiefest among 10,000 and altogether lovely
Isaiah 7:14; 9:6; 52:13; 53:3 Virgin-born Immanuel; Child and Son; Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace; Righteous Servant, and Man of Sorrows
Jeremiah 23:6; 33:16 The Lord our righteousness
Lamentations 3:22, 23, 31-33 The faithful and compassionate God
Ezekiel The Lord is there
Daniel 2:34; 3:25; 7:13 Smiting Stone, Son of God, Son of man
Hosea 13:9, 14 King of the resurrection
Joel 2:28-32; 2:11; 3:2, 9-17 God of the battle and giver of the Spirit
Amos 4:13; 7:9 God of hosts and of the plumb line
Obadiah 1:8, 15 Destroyer of the proud
Jonah 2:10; 3:1; 4:9-11 The risen Prophet, God of second choice, The long-suffering one
Micah 4:1-5; 5:2; 7:18, 19 God of Jacob, the Bethlehemite, and the pardoning God
Nahum 1:2, 15 The avenging God and bringer of good tidings
Habakkuk 1:12, 13; 2:14; 3:13 The everlasting pure, glorious, and anointed one
Zephaniah 3:15 The King of Israel
Haggai 2:7 Desire of all nations
Zechariah 3:8; 6:12; 6:13; 9:9; 12:10; 14:9 Branch, builder of Temple, King of Triumphal entry, pierced one, King of the earth
Malachi 3:16 Lord of remembrance
Matthew 2:2; 27:37 King of the Jews
Mark 9:35; 10:43, 44 Servant
Luke 2:40, 52; 9:22, 56, 58; 22:48 Perfect man
John 1:1-5; 20:28, 31 Eternal God
Acts 1:9 Ascended Lord
Romans 10:4 The Lord our righteousness
1 Corinthians 15 Our resurrection
2 Corinthians 1:3 God of all comfort
Galatians 4:4, 5 Redeemer from the law
Ephesians 1:22; 2:20; 5:23; 4:7, 8 Head of the church and giver of gifts
Philippians 1:19; 4:19; 2:5-8 Supplier of every need and obedient Servant
Colossians 1:19; 2:9 Fullness of the Godhead
1 Thessalonians 4:13-18; 5:2, 23 The coming Christ
2 Thessalonians 2:8 The consuming Christ
1 Timothy 2:15; 3:16; 1:15 Mediator and Savior of sinners
2 Timothy 4:8; 3:16, 17 Righteous and rewarding Judge and author of Scripture
Titus 1:3; 2:10, 13; 3:4 Our great God and Savior
Philemon Payer of our debt
Hebrews 1:2
Hebrews 1:4; 3:3
Hebrews 2:10; 5:9; 12:2
Hebrews 2:17; 3:1, 4:14
Hebrews 7:25-27; 9:24
Hebrews 12:24
Hebrews 13:20
Appointed Heir of all things
One better than the prophets and angels
Captain of our salvation
Merciful and faithful High Priest
Great Intercessor
Mediator of new covenant
Great Shepherd of the sheep
James 4:6-8; 5:15; 5:7, 8 Ever-present God, Great Physician, and the coming one
1 Peter 1:19; 2:21-24; 5:4; 3:22 Unblemished Lamb, great example, Chief Shepherd, Lord of Glory
2 Peter 1:17 The beloved Son
1 John 1:1; 2:1; 2:2; 3:8; 4:15; 5:5 Word of life, advocate, propitiation, and Son of God
2 John 1:3 Son of the Father
3 John 1:4, 8 The Truth
Jude 1:1, 25 Preserver and only wise God
Revelation 1:8; 5:5
Revelation 5:7; 6:17
Revelation 19:16
Revelation 22:16
The Alpha and Omega, Lion of Judah,
The slain and angry Lamb,
The King of kings
The bright and morning Star



27 Descriptions of Christ in the 27 NT Books


King of the Jews Matt. 2:2; 27:37


Servant Mark 9:35; 10:43-44


Perfect man Luke 2:40, 52; 9:22, 56, 58; 22:48


Eternal God John 1:1-5; 20:28, 31


Ascended Lord Acts 1:9


The Lord our righteousness Rom. 10:4


Our resurrection 1 Cor. 15


God of all comfort 2 Cor. 1:3


Redeemer from the law Gal. 4:4-5


Head of the Church; giver of gifts Eph. 1:22, 2:20; 4:7-8


Supplier of every need; obedient servant Phil. 1:19; 4:19; 2:5-8


Fullness of the Godhead Col. 1:19; 2:9


The coming Christ 1 Thess. 4:13-18; 5:2


The consuming Christ 2 Thess. 2:8


Savior of sinners 1 Tim. 2:15; 3:16; 1:15


Righteous and rewarding Judge; author of Scripture 2 Tim. 4:8; 3:16-17


Our great God and savior Titus 1:3; 2:10, 13; 3:4


Payer of our debt Philemon


Appointed heir of all things; one greater than the prophets or angels Heb. 1:2, 4; 3:3


Ever-present God; great physician; the coming one James 4:6-8; 5:15; 5:7-8


Unblemished lamb; great example; chief shepherd; Lord of glory 1 Pet. 1:19; 2:21-24; 5:4; 3:22


The beloved Son 2 Pet. 1:17


Word of life; advocate; propitiation; Son of God 1 John 1:1; 2:1; 3:8; 4:15; 5:5


Son of the Father 2 John 1:3


The truth 3 John 1:4, 8


Preserver and only wise God Jude 1-25


The Alpha and Omega; the lion of Judah; king of kings Revelation 1:8; 5:5, 19:16



Seven Reasons Why I Believe in
The Virgin Birth of Christ

by Dr. Ian R. K. Paisley

“When human impotence bows to that answer of divine omnipotence the Miracle of the Virgin Birth can be whole-heartedly accepted. He who questions the Virgin Birth challenges the almightiness of God. To discredit the Virgin Birth is not only to strike at the nature of Christ but at the very power of God.”

Seven Reasons Why I Believe in
The Full Divinity of Christ

by Dr. Ian R. K. Paisley

“Our Lord Jesus Christ is God manifest in the flesh. God tabernacling in human form. When I say I believe in the full deity of Christ, that is what I affirm. At His birth our Lord Jesu Christ did not begin to exist. He was before all worlds Very God of Very God. Neither did He cease to be God, He was, is and always shall be the Mighty God, the Father of Eternity. At the incarnation God the Son took on another mode of existence by taking into union with Himself an impeccable human nature.”

Seven Reasons Why I Believe in
The Atoning Blood of Christ

by Dr. Ian R. K. Paisley

“This vital consideration brings us to the fulcrum of the great operation of the Divine Revelation, to the centre of the vast circumference of Divine Redemption and to the very heart of the throbbing purpose of Divine Reconciliation. We come from the shallows of human speculation to the depths of divine revelation when we come to the Blood. We step at this juncture from the shadows of Old Testament typology to the blazing sunshine of New Testament theology. It is here we launch our souls from the shores of man’s estimate into the boundless, tideless, endless sea of God’s ultimate.”

Seven Reasons Why I Believe in
The Bodily Resurrection of Christ

by Dr. Ian R. K. Paisley

“The Resurrection is essential to Christianity, for by it alone can Christianity be confirmed. The Resurrection is the great corroborator of the Christian gospel. Remove this keystone and the goodly temple crashes into ruin. As life is essential to living so the Resurrection is essential to a living Christianity. Take away the Resurrection and Christianity becomes a dead letter, but another contribution to the world’s Pantheon.”

About David M. Curtis

Profile photo of David M. Curtis
David is a self-employed business owner who enjoys web and graphics design, a good TV show or movie, spending time with his animals and friends. For many years,David taught the Bible on the west coast 5 days a week over the radio for a broadcast he called, "The Loud Cry Ministry." David has been in ministry his entire adult life, having visited and taught in churches coast to coast, including churches in California, New York, Tennessee, Kansas, Nevada, Texas, Georgia, Oregon and Washington. David has been in marketing for over a dozen years now having owned or managed four offices, with hundreds of employees. David is responsible for creating and developing projects that cost in excess of half a million dollars, and absolutely loves developing new concepts and ideas and turning them into a reality. Currently David resides in Cincinnati OH where he works from home managing his online business US Home Work Force for the past three years, in which he provides websites and training for thousands of people all across the country helping them to earn a substantial income over the Internet.
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