Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities,
British Museum, London, England
I am commanded by the Assistant Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities to reply as follows to your questions on the ancient week:
Q. 1. Did the pagan Romans and Greeks ever have any regular weekly day of rest from secular work?
Q. 2. Did they have any regular weekly festival day?
Q. 3. Did they have any regular weekly day when they assembled for pagan worship?
Q. 4. Did they have any special day of the week when individuals went to the temples to pray or make offerings?
Ans. No; both for Greeks and Romans the month was the unit and not the week. The Greek calendar varied in different states but the month was generally divided into three periods of ten days. The Romans reckoned from three fixed points in the month, the Kalend or first, the Nones fifth or seventh, the Ides thirteenth or fifteenth. These subdivisions in themselves had no religious significance. Also in the Roman calendars were nundinal, or market days, at periods of eight days, or, as the Romans reckoned time. On these days farm work, etc., stopped and citizens flocked into the town markets. To some extent this may be a regular stoppage of secular work.; but it had no religious significance, except that it was considered an evil omen when the nundinal coincided with other festival days, e. g., the: Nones. The nundinal period seems The Lord’s Day derived from a blundering reminiscence of a quarter of a lunar period, and there seems no connection with the later seven days’ week (see below).
Q. 5. As Sunday was sacred to the Sun, Monday to the Moon, Saturday to Saturn, etc., were those supposed deities worshiped on their own particular days more than on any other days?
Ans. No; the old worship of the gods was disappearing when the seven-day week came about. The significance of the deities’ names was astrological, not religious, e.g., if a person were born on Monday, the moon would influence his horoscope, but the moon was never an object of common worship.
Q. 6. When was our week of seven days first introduced into the Roman calendar?
Ans. There are traces in the literature of the late republic (first cent. B.C.) that the Romans used the week of seven days for astrological purposes, in connection with the many Eastern superstitions of the period. It was probably the third century, A.D. before the seven day week came into common use.
Q.7. From whom did the Romans learn the week of seven days?
Ans. From the Jews, alternately the Assyrians and Babylonians; the names were probably fixed by the Hellenistic Greeks.
Q. 8. Did the pagan Greeks ever adopt in common life, or in their calendar, the week of seven days?
Q. 9. Did Apollo, the Sun god, either among the Romans or Greeks, have any special day on which he was worshiped with prayers or offerings more than on any other day?
Ans. There were certain set festivals at various temples; these were annual, not weekly.
Q. 10. Did the pagan reverence for Sunday have anything to do in influencing Christians to select that day as their rest day?
Ans. No; it can hardly be said that there was any special reverence for Sunday in pagan times (see answer to No. 5).
I am, sir, Your obedient servant, F. N. PRYCE.
You see this historian gives an unqualified NO to all the questions. Notice particularly that the names of the days of the week were all only astrological, not religious. There was no religious sacredness attached to a day because it was named after some planet as Sun-day – Sun’s day – or Mon-day, Moon’s day, etc. The sun was not worshiped on Sunday, nor the moon on Monday, nor Saturn on Saturday, etc. Also notice carefully that Apollo was not worshiped on Sunday or on any weekday. His festival days were annual, not weekly, as Adventists have taught. Then note that there was no special reverence for Sunday in pagan times. Here again Adventists are proved to be entirely wrong. This again destroys all their contention that Sunday sacredness originated with pagans. The proof is abundant that no such thing was ever known among the pagan Romans or Greeks. Hence, Sunday-keeping, or Sunday sacredness, could not have originated with them.
Source: The Lord’s Day From Neither Catholics nor Pagans – D.M. Canright